Oklahoma’s Mystery Meat

» January 31st, 2013

On Tuesday, February 5, Oklahoma lawmakers will introduce bills SB375 and HB1999 to the state’s Agriculture and Rural Development Committee. A couple of obscure agriculture bills in a faraway red state might not seem to be urgent political fare, but if you make the mistake of eating hamburgers, of if you care about treating animals with dignity, you should keep a close eye on the fate of these initiatives. Together, they represent the most insidious effort we’ve seen in decades to expand the scope of industrially produced animal products.

SB 375 effectively seeks to authorize the opening of horse slaughterhouses in Oklahoma. The last horse slaughter plants in the United States were shut down in 2007. This left the United States to ship upwards of 200,000 horses (many of them mustangs removed by the Bureau of Land Management to clear space for cattle) to Canadian and Mexican abattoirs, from where the meat goes to European markets. Oklahoma, which keeps a substantial portion of these horses in holding pens, is eager to keep this business local. What it would it also like to keep local is the resulting flesh. HB1999 aims to legalize the production and sale of horsemeat, or, as one interested party insisted that we now call it: “cheval.”

To think that this meat will not end up in the nation’s beef supply is to misunderstand the industrial food system. Recently, Polish horsemeat was found in Irish burgers. The average American burger is subject to the same unregulated adulteration. As Forbes’ Vickery Eckhoff writes, “Your average burger is a big mash-up of edible scraps and parts from different cows from different plants, often from different states (and even countries), with fat and additives ground in, all of which makes Polish horse meat ending up in Irish beef patties a bit easier to understand.” She adds, “Yes, it could happen here.”

Of course, it’s illegal to incorporate horsemeat into ground beef. But, realistically speaking, that hardly matters. The corrupt underbelly of animal agriculture will digest anything. There’s zero regulation of what scraps from where enter into the meat’s labyrinthian supply chain. Oklahoma, with its “struggling racetracks” happy to dispose of “spent” horses alongside its sizable cattle industry is watering at the mouth, I would imagine, to feed the world cheap tubes of mystery meat. It’s not hard to envision a scenario whereby scraps from slaughterhouses are consolidated, processed, and incorporated as ground beef filler. It’s hard to understate how wealthy this culinary combo would make some people.

There’s more. As I’ve written before (as had Eckhoff, far more extensively), the introduction of horsemeat into the American meat supply is, corruption or no, an unprecedented public health disaster waiting to happen. Horses are medicated with drugs that could harm humans and these drugs, as I explained in Slate, have the power to make Mad Cow Disease look like a case of the sniffles:

The most common pharmacological concern when it comes to horse meat is an anti-inflammatory drug called phenylbutazone, or “bute.” Whatever the exact lineup of drugs administered, many racehorses receive a steady dosage of bute. For all its effectiveness in treating horse pain, however, bute, a carcinogen, is strongly linked with bone marrow and liver problems in humans. In fact, the danger it poses is so acute that the FDA has banned its use in animals intended for human consumption because, according to one peer-reviewed study in Food and Chemical Toxicology, “it causes serious and lethal idiosyncratic adverse effects in humans.”

I’m going to let you in on a little secret here: Oklahoma legislators know this and they DO NOT CARE. The bills slated to be heard on Tuesday are one small but tragic step in a much larger process of trying to legalize the slaughter, sale, and consumption of horses in the United States. It involves dozens of corrupt state and federal officials. And it’s all driven by greed and a complete disregard for animals and, frankly, the humans who are expected t eat them. With the help of Vickery Eckhoff (who truly “owns” this story), I plan to keep readers updated as this conspiracy of sorts unfolds.

In the meantime,

Contact the Chair of the Agriculture and Rural Development Committee in Oklahoma that has the power to decide whether to hear SB375 or not. Thank you!

Senator Eddie Fields
2300 N. Lincoln Blvd., Rm. 416
Oklahoma City, OK 73105
(405) 521-5581
Executive Assistant: Betsy Ingraham



44 Responses to Oklahoma’s Mystery Meat

  1. HB1999 will not only legalize the production of horse meat and horse slaughter in the state of Oklahoma it will make it legal to do WITHOUT repealing our current law that has prohibited horse slaughter, transport, possession and consumption of horse meat since 1963.

    HB1999 is written this way so they can sell to outside entities..people outside the state and country.

    Oklahoma is currently touted as the Horse Show Capitol of the World. If HB1999 and SB375 pass we will indeed become the Horse Slaughter Capitol of the United States.

    What ARE they thinking? Sadly they are not….

    • Andy Carr says:

      I would rather see a “UNWANTED” horse go to Slaughter then to see it Starve to death in a back pen or pasture with out food or water. Slaughter house here in the states can save money, save the horse that ride in trailer’s that are over loaded to out of USA slaughter and can put people to work here in the states. Again I have to say “UNWANTED horses”

      • elizabeth Dana says:

        The ONLY reason a horse is slaughtered is for MONEY. It is not kinder for the sake of kindness for the horse. It is not kinder to slaughter and kill than euthenize in a pastuer or field ,stall etc…

        I would rather see an unwanted or “unhomed” horse

        gently put down by a vet free of charge through a public program. OPTIONS AVAILABLE:

        1 reported to the Animal Cruelty Officer
        2 turned into the over 3000 legitimate rescues
        3 rehabed into the Veterans Warriors PTSD
        4 donated to the local Vet College program
        5 taken by law officers and put up for adoption
        6. rehabbed and rehomed and adopted
        7. Doanted to 4-H Project groups
        8. Donated to therapetic groups
        9. Supported and sponsored by FFA groups
        10. Advertised Free to home on Craig’s List with non-slaughter contract……..



        Free surrender programs would be funded by fees assessed from horse racing, breeding farms, pedigree breeders, registrations associations, breeder registrations, fund raisers, rodeos, horse shows, and managed by legal animal welfare associations under law officers of animal control in conjunction with volunteer reporting agencies (SPCA-HUMANE)


      • vicki says:

        Andy, do you care if the “unwanted” horse wasn’t raised as a food animal and may contain one or more substances that are banned in food animals?

      • gloria eighmey says:

        The obvious main solution to to many horse is to stop breading 130,000 to many horses a year that are sold to slaughtor every year. But as long as there is a profitable market in horse slaughter it doesn’t just encourage the over breeding of horses, it GARRENTEIS it.It creates a endless cycle of over breeding to fill the profitable horse slaughter market. 92% of horses slaughtered are young, sound, healthy,and in good condition. It has NOTHING to do with old, starved, unwanted or injured horses. As in ANY business. If there is a market and money to be made for a product. There is going to be enough of that product produced to fill that profitable market. If fresh oranges are the equivalent of horses for LIVE human use. And orange juice is the equivalent of horses sold for slaughter.There are going to be enough oranges grown to fill the profitable market for both fresh oranges and orange juice. If there is a cattle meat market demand for 2 million cattle a year.There is going to be that many cattle raised. If it increased to 5 million cattle a year, there would soon be 5 million cattle a year raised.And if the horse meat demand raised from the present 130,000 to 500,00.THere would soon be 500,000 so called unwanted excess horses bred a year. First off it is IMPOSSIBLE that reopening american horse slaughtor plants can be a solution. The closing of any US slaughtor plants can have NO CONECTION with any present horse situation. Because horse slaughtor has never ended. There are just as many horses slaughtered now as when before the US.horse slaughter plants closed. IT as made ABSOLUTLY NO DIFFRENSE in the amount of horses being slaughtered. There just are being shipped out of the country to be slaughtered. And NOT ONE more horse would have been slaughtered even if 10 horse slaughter plants had been opened in the U.S.. Sense the horse slaughter business is driven by the by the law of supply and demand like any other business is : The horse slaughter kill buyers do not bye any more horses then what they have contracts for. And these contracts are based on the horse meat market demand. And the demand is already being meant. With these given facts; Pro horse slaughter people, PLEASE , try and explain how the closing of the US. slaughter plants can possibly have ANYTHING to do with the present horse situation.NOTHING HAS CHANGED because of the closing of these plants. Any increase in unwanted horses was caused by the great economic downturn our country had which AFFECTED AND HURT ALL BUISNESSES./// When there are hard economic times as have been happening in the US in the last 5 years ,you are not going to have as much demand for horses which are expensive to keep. The ONLY affect the slaughter markets have on this is they make it MUCH HARDER for horses rescues to be able to take someones unwanted horse and later find them a home . Because horse rescues have for years been spending so much money on having to out bid and BYE horses bound for slaughter.And them find THEM a home. And that solved nothing.As there is still a profet and demand for the meat market so even MORE horses will be bred.The rescues could very likely handle the amount of unwanted horses that were GIVEN to them by owners that no longer wanted them if they didn’t have to be endlessly spending there resources in trying to save horses from the slaughter market and have to compete with the kill Byers BYING them. And the horse market already had built in to it the 130,000 excess horses that are sold to slaughter every year. That many excess horses were already PURPUSLY being proposed to also fill the money making slaughter market.So when hard economic times comes as it did, which does cause a increase in some people no longer easily able to afford there horses.The slaughter market does nothing to reduce this. Because the horse meat market does not have a increase in demand. Because the demand for horse meat is the same. The number of horses sold to slaughter is the same. For over 50 years our country already had built in to it the production of the access number of horses needed to fill the slaughter market,It can not absorb any more simply because we have a economic turn down on top of hay prises soaring higher. The pro slaughter people have no explanations for any of this . BECAUSE THERE IS NONE.

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  3. Contact the Chair of the Agriculture and Rural Development Committee in Oklahoma that has the power to decide whether to hear SB375 or not. Thank you!

    Senator Eddie Fields
    2300 N. Lincoln Blvd., Rm. 416
    Oklahoma City, OK 73105
    (405) 521-5581
    Executive Assistant: Betsy Ingraham

  4. Annie says:

    Ugh, what next – horse meat in with cow meat – terrible, and the meat industry is so awful now. Please take a look too, James, at this video regarding GMC and Lou and Bill. Thanks.


    • I’ve followed the saga of Bill and Lou. I’m not surprised they killed Lou in the middle of the night after lying about euthanizing him. I’m envious of the 3.9 million emails that flooded GMC over this issue. I wish 3.9 million people would get upset over the slaughterhouses that will be built in the U.S. if this Oklahoma bill (and others like it) succeed. Hundreds of thousands of horses will die. But no one speaks up about them. A single pair of oxen though–that mobilizes people. Can anyone explain why one pair of oxen stirs 3.9 million people to act, but hundreds of thousands of horses going to slaughter does not?

      • Kate says:

        Well said.

      • John T. Maher says:

        Because Bill and Lou have names and an acquired singularity which is denied for other animals and serves to transform their status as subjects of humans. This negates Derrida’s claim that animals can not be “murdered” by transforming Bill and Lou from animals into beings closer to Dasein or the “who” depending on which philosopher you read. In contrast the horses are nameless subjects of the sovereign and humans can not comprehend the singularity of any of them in much the same way as “bus goes over a cliff in India” fails to elicit a response from the former colonial masters. In the end, we get closer to Sontag’s compassion fatigue based upon the relentless banality of the horse roundups and slaughter. That is why two oxen with names stir millions and millions of anonymous horses fail to stir Americans.

        • Thank you for your reply, John—and Mountain, too.

          How would you change that? Obviously, right now, it is a much bigger concern if new slaughter houses for horses open up than to go on talking about Bill and Lou, don’t you think? How would you get those people who spoke out for Bill and Lou to speak out against opening up new slaughterhouses that receive far less oversight than even the beef plants do?

          This is a concern for vegans and vegetarians as well as omnivores: there are not only humane concerns, but huge food safety, economic and environmental issues for communities.

          And if you’re wondering how a horse operation can be worse than a cattle operation, here’s how: horses have nearly twice as much blood as cattle, and the drugs in the blood disable bacteria in wastewater treatment facilities, preventing them from breaking down effluents that end up being discharged, untreated. I’m not saying that cattle operations do not impose large scale environmental challenges, but the small horse operations that we are talking about here (in terms of relative size) have proven to be tremendously damaging in proportion to the scale of their operations.

          It would seem worth everyone’s time to see this for what it is: another way of expanding the pool of animals to slaughter that will cause problems the likes of which few people even understand. Yes, there are fewer horses that will be slaughtered, but this is the slippery slope. These plants are not wanted in communities—they’ve been blocked successfully (so far). But as one plant is fought, the proponents simply pop up elsewhere. And changing laws is how they hope to succeed. So—how to get 3.9 million people to care about that.

          Any ideas?

          • John T. Maher says:

            Not to be glib or to sound like an old school Marxist, which I am not, but eliminate capitalism and you will end animal exploitation. To eliminate the idea that one human person may exploit another being (with or without legal personhood) and almost all animal slaughter will stop. This will kill the supply side. Elevating human consciousness to get humans to stop would basically mean everyone in America must stay in school until they obtain a degree in Science Studies or Philosophy and then endure enough post docs to reach a consensus on animal being and collective interspecies and environmental responsibility, This of course will not happen anytime soon. It may occur as an unintended consequence of human evolution or response to anthropocenic change. More realistically, eliminate all subsidies in the form of grazing licenses, etc. for raising animals for consumption, especially on federal land where Mustangs make their habitat and horse slaughter will stop. The lawsuits against the DOI and BLM over Mustang and donkey roundups have achieved nothing other than legal contortions.

            Would you please email me any links or pdfs on the environmental impact of horse slaughter? johntmaher@yahoo.com

          • ingrid says:

            Vickery, my question is simplistic, but do you think a social media campaign, highlighting individual horses with some notable human celebrities in the mix, would inspire the same concern? I do think John is right, that the nameless in the story, sadly, are overlooked for the more tangible — as applied to humans and nonhumans alike.

            In the wildlife community, there was public outrage over wolf 832F, one of the most photographed Yellowstone wolves, who was shot after she left the boundaries of Yellowstone. It was a horrific event, but no more awful than what’s happened to the 1000 wolves ruthlessly killed in the Western states this past year. Still, it took the recognizable 832F to draw considerable attention to the barbarism of the wolf hunting season (which, sadly, goes on).

            Yesterday, NPR ran a story on the tainted “beef” in the UK, and the story mentioned that the British were overwhelmingly heartsick about it, because they have culturally intimate associations with horses as companion animals. I think there’s similar sentiment here that could be rallied to effect, if people had — sad to say — a poster horse. Perhaps I’m underestimating the American public, but then — we know what H.L. Mencken thought of that.

      • John T. Maher says:

        Great article by the way

      • Mountain says:

        “When one man dies it is a tragedy, when thousands die it’s statistics.”

        Attributed to Stalin, though there is some doubt as to whether he actually said it. Regardless, I think the quote explains it as well as it can be explained.

        • John T. Maher says:

          It does not. Stalin’s insight fails to describe the element of self-imposed disconnect between humans and animals in interspecies care. Although the comments do not discuss this explicitly, it is also not a strictly a matter of care v. empathy

      • paula denmon says:

        Thanks again Vickery for another great point.. As I was debating a vegan who said that we (the horse advocates) were being unfair to cows, and pigs and goats etc. And that is a point that is made often, and I personally do not eat animals, but still the truth is that horses are different. We don’t encourage people to eat their other pets, their dogs and cats so that all animals will be commonly on a plate just to make the majority vegetarians, or vegans. Horses are loved and respected as icons of history, companions, sport partners, co-workers and pets. They are as different from a cow as a bear is from a dog. There are just a million reasons not to eat horses, and no good reason to eat them.

  5. Excellent post, thank you. Shared.

  6. kathyh says:

    I will never understand the desire of some to allow an animal such as the Horse to be allowed into the Human Food Chain, given the undeniable fact that Horses in this country are not bred or raised for consumption,as are the animals that provide beef, pork, poultry,etc. having been bred/raised by a dedicated producer. Horses are not regulated under any food safety regulations, restrictions or protocols. Owners are legally permitted to inject,dose,apply many substances to their Horses that are Banned from all other food producing animals. Unless every single carcass was tested , and tested correctly for each & every banned substance,Horse meat could not be declared safe, given that the great majority of horses that end up slaughtered have always been of unknown origin/unknown disease/drug history& gathered at random by kill buyers, whose only concern or obligation is to meet the quota they have contracted with the plant. The EU has recognized the problems with this method of Sourcing and reacted with the New Passport Tracking/Traceability Requirements that will go into effect with the next few months, This will Render USA Horse Meat ineligible for export into the largest market(s). So I would assume that those that are pushing for the re-opening of USA plants would be targeting Countries with weaker import requirements..how ignorant,callous , arrogant not to mention predatory. Try sourcing other meats in the same manner..watch what happens once Consumers catch wind of it.

  7. Katrina says:

    Every time I think I can’t be surprised by what we humans will do, I get surprised.

  8. shirley smith says:

    Americans love horses always have and always will, they bring joy into our lives as they have done for many years. They are not raised for food and it is so cruel to think that they are being slaughtered as we speak they do not deserve this and it needs to stop. Ban horse slaughter in this New Year be the voices of the horses that don’t have one. Americans will not be eating their friends the horses! The wild horses need to be wild and free just like they have been protected to be there is enough land for all the wildlife, the wild horses and the land belong to the public have you forgotten? Ban horse slaughter and round-ups NOW!

  9. Darrell C says:

    Kudos Mr. McWilliams for an excellent article! I take some consolation in being a vegetarian these days as I don’t have to be concerned over ‘tainted’ meat products. One has to carefully read product labels though as animal based ingredients end up in all sorts of unexpected products!

    Back to the point, I have been involved in the movement to shutter commercial equine abattoirs in America and protect the Wild Equines since the latter 70′s. One would hope, that with approximately 80% of Americans opposing commercial equine ‘murder’, that elected officials would get a clue and have shuttered this brutal and disgusting industry as well as export for such nationally some time ago.

    Alas over these many years I have received a hard education regarding the American sociopolitical system. I have come to the conclusion that it is broken beyond internal repair being raft with corruption. IMO the majority of politicians and elected officials are liars and thieves and there is little, if any, truth or decency left in them. As much as I might hope I see no end to this in my lifetime…

    ~Perseverance: “My face is set, my gait is fast, my goal is Heaven, my road is narrow, my way is rough, my companions are few, my guide is reliable, my mission is clear. I cannot be bought, compromised, detoured, lured away, turned back, diluted, or delayed. I will not flinch in the face of sacrifice, hesitate in the presence of adversity, negotiate… at the table of the enemy, ponder at the pool of popularity, or meander in a maze of mediocrity. I won’t give up, shut up, let up, or slow up.” – Robert Moorehead~

  10. AnneMH says:

    Horse slaughter can never be humane. If they reopen the slaughter houses, it will only be a matter of time before the cruelty is once again exposed and they are closed down again. And during the time in between, the horses will suffer. The captive bolt method, which is used on horses in Canada and was used in the U.S., is designed for cattle, and is notoriously ineffective when used on horses. Horses are flighty, able to avoid the bolt, so they are hit in the face and the eye multiple times, instead of once with cattle. Horses’ brains are also positioned differently, so they’re not knocked completely unconscious. Footage shows horses being hoisted up, ripped apart alive and screaming. Mares giving birth on the kill floor. Horses whipped in the face to blind them and make them more “manageable.” This is what the breeders want. A way to make money off the extras they produce in their exploitation of horses. Restrict breeding. Ban the slaughter and transport for slaughter NOW.

  11. shirley smith says:

    Ban horse slaughter and wild horse roundups NOW!

  12. Well there are two slaughter bills coming up Tuesday for discussion on Oklahoma’s ag-committee. I don’t think we can end capitalism by then. Could the larger community of vegans/vegatarians be persuaded to understand a few facts about horse slaughter’s impact on communities so they can call the Ag committee chair and apply political pressure? I don’t mean calling up and talking philosophy, either. That won’t move anyone. But articulating the economics of horse slaughter (it’s an economic predator), its history of environmental violations (HUGE), its effect on driving up crime rates and driving away economic development–these are the things that legislators are persuaded by. As much as the humane aspects are horrid, these have never swayed a single legislator. But a bipartisan majority of Congress finds the other reasons highly persuasive, which is why they keep trying to pass the American Horse Slaughter Prevention Act.

    Here’s a link to one of my Forbes.com articles on what one slaughter plant did to the town of Kaufman, TX:

    Texas Mayor Paula Bacon Kicks Some Tail


    I’ll also email you.

    PS: I’ve written a lot of articles on this topic. You can find them all here: blogs.forbes.com/vickeryeckhoff

  13. Andy Carr, there are nine million horses in the U.S., more than 90% drugged as non-food animals with cancer-causing substances (to people). This is who you propose to slaughter. That’s a food safety fiasco waiting to happen.

    As for your claim of humane slaughter, there is no such thing. I have interviewed Dr. Temple Grandin, the queen of building “humane slaughter” systems, and her design only stunned horses properly (that is, according to what is required under the law) about 40% of the time. The rest of the time, the horses woke up during vivisection or had to be shot in the head multiple times. Besides the inhumanity of the slaughter process, the transport to slaughter is, too. And the only way to shorten distances for horses isn’t to built plants in a few US rural communities. The US is a big place. It’s actually shorter to drive horses over the border to Canada for many killbuyers than to drive them within the lower 48.

    There is only one form of humane death for a horse, and that is euthanasia by a licensed veterinarian (chemical or gun shot to the head).

  14. Hi Ingrid,

    While that might work for wolves and cattle, it’s not what works for horses. What works for them is for the public to understand why this is bad for communities: predatory, environmental violations, crime rates go up, economic development goes elsewhere, food safety problems. These plants historically pay nothing in taxes; drain communities. Really bad for US taxpayers, who fund the inspections and then end up paying and paying and getting no economic benefits out of it. They need to know that and call their congressman (and specifically in this case, the OK Ag commission that’s deciding this) and tell them: I don’t want this in my community and I don’t want my tax dollars paying for inspections and I won’t vote for anyone who supports this.

    That’s what’s needed. It happens to work, but it means people need to know what they’re opposing. It’s not enough to oppose it on “humanitarian” grounds. Congress doesn’t protect animals on “humanitarian” grounds. They do it because their constituents demand it on economic grounds. This strategy works. But people need to get behind it.

  15. Hi Ingrid,

    While that might work for wolves and cattle, it’s not what works for horses. What works for them is for the public to understand why this is bad for communities: predatory, environmental violations, crime rates go up, economic development goes elsewhere, food safety problems. These plants historically pay nothing in taxes; drain communities. Really bad for US taxpayers, who fund the inspections and then end up paying and paying and getting no economic benefits out of it. They need to know that and call their congressman (and specifically in this case, the OK Ag commission that’s deciding this) and tell them: I don’t want this in my community and I don’t want my tax dollars paying for inspections and I won’t vote for anyone who supports this.

    That’s what’s needed. It happens to work, but it means people need to know what they’re opposing. It’s not enough to oppose it on “humanitarian” grounds. Congress doesn’t protect animals on “humanitarian” grounds. They do it because their constituents demand it on economic grounds. This strategy works. But people need to get behind it.

  16. shirley smith says:

    Be the voices of the horses that don’t have one ban horse slaughter forever!

  17. shirley smith says:

    Be the voices of the horses that don’t have one ban horse slaughter forever!

  18. shirley smith says:

    Be the voices of the horses that don’t have one ban horse slaughter forever! They have done so much for us thru the years and are still doing what we ask them to do!

  19. shirley smith says:

    So agree with you Elizabeth. Cudos!

  20. Yvette Wiley says:

    We need your help, please. Please post to all social media to spread the word on this HB. Contact Eddie Fields, Chairman of the Ag Committee whether you live here in Oklahoma or not.

    Please. We need your help to spread the word on this bill. Thank you.

  21. Mary Ann Markowitz says:

    Killing living beings is the worst Human Degradation.

    I hope we can persevere to act to improve humanity – for true LASTING prosperity

  22. Agreed. And the way to do that is to contact the right legislators whenever these bills are on the table and tell them to vote NO. Legislators respond to the right kinds of constituent pressure. For the most part, they are not informed on the ways that slaughter plants are bad for economic development and communities. This is ALL they care about. Fortunately, there is much to educate them on here. Most are grateful to find out about the economic downside to slaughter. It takes patience to educate them, but it is worth it.

  23. Alane Bronson says:

    I’m just seeing this today, did it pass?

  24. There will be a second reading Monday of SB 375 and Tuesday of HB 1999.

    Would you make a phone call? Are you in OK?

  25. Paula Denmon says:

    I’ve called the Governor. Will it help for non-Ok citizens to call. I certainly will.

  26. Paula Denmon says:

    Alane. Voted on Tues. if you are in OK crucial to call. If not call Governors office. Tell her that you will no longer do
    Horse Business or any business there.

  27. Second reading Monday and Tuesday of this week.

    You can call the Governor. The legislator proposing this bill owns the biggest slaughter horse auction in the state. How’s that for conflict of interest?

    All we need: more slaughterhouses opening to produce cheap, unregulated meat that has worse stuff in it (and treats horses worse) than the beef industry!

  28. Paula Denmon says:

    So true. Spoke w Gov. Assistant.

  29. Paula Denmon says:

    Wrong. Sorry. Voting on Tuesday or soon after.

  30. [...] For the rest of us, it’s time to tweet and Facebook till our fingers are bleeding. Refer to this story, also, “Oklahoma’s Mystery Meat.” [...]

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